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(Kachha = dry or healed sore; hem of a garment). A son of Brihaspati (Jupiter). He was instrumental in learning the secret of restoring the dead to life from Sukracharya (Venus) which the latter alone possessed. The demons did not want Kachha to succeed, so they killed him again and again, but he was always restored to life by Venus at the intercession of Devayani, his daughter who had fallen in love with Kachha. The demons killed Kachha for the third time, burnt his body, crushed his bones and mixed the ashes with their preceptor's drink, but Devayani again implored her father to bring back the young man to life. Venus agreed to do so. As there was a danger that Venus himself would die in the process if Kachha came out of him by tearing his body, he taught the secret to Kachha to help him bring Venus to life after His (Kachha's) restoration. Devayani wanted to marry Kachha, but even when he was restored to life he resisted the proposal on the plea that he loved her only as a sister. At this Devayani cursed him that the charm that he had learnt from her father would be powerless with him, and he in return condemned her to be sought by no Brahman, and to become the wife of a Kshatriya (for greater details, see MSVA, pp. 71-74).


A daughter of Daksha (q.v.), and one 6f the 13 wives of Sage Kashyapa. She was the mother of many-headed powerful serpents, chief among them being Sesha, Vasuki and such others.


(Kahal = mischievous). A planetary combination that produces contradictory results: persons born under the combination are courageous, virile, commanding a well-equipped army, and ruling over an extensive area, yet they are intellectually foolish, ignorant (dull witted), and devoid of common and garden guts. This combination is constituted in several ways: the most popular version lays down that the lords of 9th and 4th houses should be in mutual angles and the lord of the ascendant should be strong. The combination is also formed if the lord of the 4th occupies its exaltation or own sign and is expected by or is in conjunction with the 10th lord. Jatakadesh, a classical text, states it to produce learning, humility, grace and self-possession, yet the individual will be indulgent in sensual pleasures. Kahal Yoga, according to Phaladeepika, is formed by the lord of the ascendant in exaltation or in its own sign occupying a trine or a cardinal house. It makes life without any blemish: a person born under it is prosperous, respectful, benevolent, and God-fearing, happy, charitable and regal in demeanor.


Perfect isolation. Detachment of soul from matter and complete identification with the Supreme Spirit. Final emancipation or beatitude. It is the culmination of Yoga practice.


(Pronounced as Kaala) A unit of Time. An unseen satellite of Sun. Vaiseshikas (q.v.) considered it as one of the nine dravyas (an elementary substance); in another sense it represents the Supreme Spirit as the destroyer. It is considered a personification of the destructive principle, viz., Yama, the god of death. The planet Saturn stands for it as far as our terrestrial life is concerned.

As a measure of time, it has been variously computed; it is often said to be equal to one minute 48 seconds (1 48"), sometimes it is said to be slightly less than it. The traditional Hindu Time Division identifies many fractions of time which are very minute while on the other extreme, its expansion goes much beyond normal human imagination. Some of these divisions are as follows:

Thruti: Time taken to Pierce one petal of the tenders petal of lotus flower by the sharpest needle. It is equal to 1/4 of a kshana (moment) or 1/2 of lava, approximately 1/6 part of time taken in twinkling of eyelids.

Nimiesha: Time taken in twinkling of an eyelid.

Guru Akshara: Time taken in uttering a syllable.

Prana: Time taken in uttering 10 Guru Akshara.

Bhagan Kala: Time taken for a planet to traverse the full zodiacal circle.

Savana Kala: The duration between two sunrises.

Some important equivalence under different systems of measuring Time are as follows: (Some of these are not necessarily equal to one another even if they have the same name in different systems.)

100 Thruti = 1 Lava = 1 Tathapara

30 Lava = 1 Nimesha

45 Nimesha = 1 Prana = 10 Guru Akshara = 1 Asu = 10 Vipala.

6 Prana = 1 Pala = 1 Vighati or 1 Vinari

60 Anupala = 1 Vipal = 2/5 of a second

60 Vighati = 1 Nadi = 1 Pala = 1 Garidanda = 1 ghati

60 Nadi/ghati = 1 Ahoratri = 1 DayNight = 1 Nakshatra day

7 1/2 Nadi/ghati = 1 Prahara

8 Prahara = 1 Hora = 24 Hours 1 Day-Night

2 Nadi/ghati = 1 Muhurtha

30 Muhhurtha = 1 Day-Night = 1 Ahoratri

7 Ahoratri = 1 week

30 Ahoratri = 1 month

30 Nakshatra Day/Ahoratri 1 Savana Month

1 Tithi = one-fifteenth of the duration between the first day of Moon known as Pratipada to New Moon, or vice versa, i.e., from New Moon to Full Moon.

15 Tithis I night

30 Tithis 1 Lunar month

1 Lunar Month = period taken by Moon to traverse the whole of 27 asterisms

1 Solar Month = Duration in which the Sun traverses one complete zodiacal Sign

100 Thruti = 1 Lava = 1 Thatpara

60 Thatpara = 1 Para

60 Paras = 1 Villiptha

60 Vilipathas = 1 Liiptha

60 Lipthas = 1 Vighati = 1 Pala

60 Vighatis/Palas = 1 Ghati/Danda

60 Ghatis = 1Ahoratri/Day-Night

60 Viapalas = 1 Pala = 24 seconds

Paksha, or a lunar fort

60 Palas = 1 Ghari/Ghati = 24 seconds

60 Ghatis = 1 Ahoratri = 24 hours

2 1/2 Vii2alas = 1 second

2 1/2 Palas = 1 minute

2 1/2 Ghatis = 1 hour

11 1/4 Nimeshas = 1 second

1 Asu/Prana = 4 seconds.

A Year: Four measures of a year are given depending upon the movement of the luminaries.

Savana Year: 1 Savana Year = 12 Savana Months

1 Savana Month = 30 Savana Days

1 Savana Day = The period intervening between two sunrises

(1 Savana year would roughly be equal to a Sidereal Year of 365 days 6 hours 9 minutes 9 seconds)

Solar Year: 1 Solar Year or Surya Varsha is the period taken by Sun to traverse the complete zodiacal circle. It is equal to the length of the Tropical Year and is roughly equal to 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 45 seconds.

Lunar Year: Approximately equal to 354 days 30 Ghatis (or 12 hours). It consists of 12 Lunar months beginning with the 1st Lunar Day, i.e., Pratipada to New Moon Day, i.e., Amavashya. When Mala-Masa occurs, it becomes equal to 13 Lunar Months. Mala Masa is an additional month which is added due to special synchronisation of Solar and Lunar Years. During the Lunar Months when Sun does not crops the Sankranti, the intervening line between two zodiacal Signs, then that Lunar Month is repeated again, thus producing an additional month. During the Lunar Month when the Sun crosses two such Sankranti lines, the month is considered a negative one, known as Kshaya Masa, which is to be neglected. Such a negative month occurs approximately after 19 years, and in such a year there are two additional Lunar months (Mala Masa).

Nakshatra (Lunar) Year: It is equivalent to approximately 324 days. It denotes the duration taken by Moon to traverse all the 27 asterisms twelve times.

Samvatasara and Yugas are other important time-concepts in Vedic Astrology.

Samvatasara is a measure of time taken by Jupiter in traversing on its average speed a zodiacal sign. In one Samvatasara, there are 361.02672 Savana days; in 12 Samvatasaras which measure Jupiter's full revolution of the zodiacal signs, there are 4332.3206 Savana days. A sequence of 5 Samvatasara, the lustrum of Jupiter, is also known as a Yuga which is different from the Yugas mentioned below. 12 of these lustrums constituted 1 Jovian Cycle of 60 years in which each lustrum and each Samvatasara is given a special name aind a special presiding deity. A Maha Yuga, i.e., a collection of yugas, viz., Kali, Treta, Dwapar and Satya Yuga, totalling 4,320,000 years is measured in terms of Jovian and Solar Years both.

Yugas: 4 Yugas, viz., Kali, Dwapar, Treta and Satya, together lasts for 4,320,000 years but all these are of varying duration. Kali Yuga, the present yuga, consists of 432,000 years of which 5,099 years elapsed on April 15, 1998. Dwapar Yuga, accounted for 864,000 or 432,000 x 2 years. Treta Yuga, during which period the ideal king Rama was born, had 1,296,000 years, or 432,000 x 3 years. Satya Yuga lasted for 1,728,000 or, 432,000 x 4 years.

The four yugas together comprise one

Maha Yuga.

4 Yugas = 1 Maha Yuga = 4,320,000 years

71 Maha Yugas = 1 Manvantra, which is the period during which a Manu rules and guides the terretrial evolution. One Sandhi or the mid-point of two such time-periods, or the duration of collapse between two Manvantaras equals 1,728,000 years. (15 Sandhis) + (14 Manvantara) = I Kalpa = 4,320,000,000 years

1 Maha Yuga = 4,320,000 years 1,000 Maha Yugas = 1 Kalpa I Kalpa = 1 Day of Brahma 360 Kalpas = 1 year of Brahma 100 (Brahma) Years = Life Span of 1 Brahma

= 100 x 360 Kalpas = 36,000 Kalpas

= 155,520,000,000,000 human (or solar) years.

The Vedic literature and the Puranic stories refer to Kala in many different contexts. The concept is used to describe many abstract teachings. The Puranas describe it in terms of Ashvatta Tree, Nagas, Garuda etc. Ashvatta Tree with its roots in heaven and branches spreading downwards refers to manifestation in Time. Vishnu reclining on the coils of Vasuki or Sesha Naga represents Time in its circular motion. Garuda as a Vahana or stead of Vishnu refers to the Great Cycle of Time. Kala which is timeless, constituting Eternity in its bosom, is even divided in several portions of 'Eternities'. Blavatsky uses the expression 'Seven Eternities' which apparently seems paradoxical. Realizing this contradiction in expression, she herself explains that the latter expression divides Duration into unconditionally eternal and universal Time (Kala) and conditioned Time (Khandakala)'.

She explains that one is the abstraction or Neumann of infinite Time, the other its phenomenon appearing periodically as the effect of Mahat, the Universal Intelligence, limited by Manavantric Duration.

The relationship between Sun and Saturn describes certain aspects of Vedic metaphysics related with Time. Sun produced Mann, the progenitor of human race, Yami, the river Yamuna personifying the life-giving essence (water), and Sani, the keeper of Time. Sun, the visible one, is itself considered an objective expression of the subjective Neumann. Time, in this way, expresses the objective impulse of the Primordial Cause, the Life Principle, represented by (invisible) Sun.

Two important features of Kala as described in Vedic metaphysics highlight the fact that (i) Time cycle is not mere a sequence of events, and (ii) it provides noumenal as well phenomenal existence. The ancient seers connected Time with Karmic Nemesis and postulated planetary deities working out the destiny of individuals and the world so as to enable them to attain the "ultimate infinitude".

Explaining the first, viz., the time cycle, Blavatsky states that the cycles were something more than a mere succession of events or a periodical "space of time" of more or less prolonged duration, for they are generally marked with recurrence of a more varied and intellectual character than are exhibited in the periodical seasons or of certain constellations. Modern wisdom is satisfied with astronomical compilations and prophesies based on unerring mathematical laws. Ancient wisdom added to the cold shell of astronomy the vivifying elements of its soul and spirit-Astrology.

And, as the sidereal motions do regulate and determine other events on Earth besides potatoes and the periodical diseases of that useful vegetable, these events have to have predetermination, by simple astronomical computations. Believers in astrology will, Blavatsky added, understand our meaning, but skeptics will laugh at the belief and mock at the idea. Thus, they shut their eyes; ostrich like, to their own fate. (cf. SD., II., p. 370)

Subjective and objective extensions of Time have been described in several yogic literatures as Maya, an illusion, resulting from restrictions on consciousness. It arises from avidya, spiritual ignorance. Shiva-Sakti Tattwa emphasized that the release of consciousness from the various restrictions imposed on it liberates spirit and one's time-consciousness. The yogis are beyond the trammels of time and space. They are beyond the Karmic-Nemesis. These happen due to knowledge of the natural laws, which are expressions of the Universal Time, Kala, working through conditioned Time, Khanda-Kala. Sun, Moon and the planets are never erring time-measurers.

Blavatsky explained the relationship between Khand-Kala, the conditioned Time, and Kala, the Universal Time, as follows:

Father, which is boundless time, generates mother, which is infinite space in eternity; and mother generates father in manvantaras, which are divisions of duration, that day when that world becomes one ocean. Then the mother becomes nara [waters-the great deep] for nara [the Supreme Spirit] to rest or move upon, when, it is said, that 1, 2, 3, 4 descend and abide in the world of the unseen, while the 4, 3, 2 become the limits in the visible world to deal with the manifestation of the father [Time].

This relates, according to Blavatsky, to the Maha Yugas which in figures become 432 and with additions of nights 4,320,000. (Cf. SD, V, p. 235)

When Indian Astrology postulated Kala Purusha (q.v.) as the base for astrological predictions, the concept of universal time, Kala, expressed as conditioned time, Khanda Kala, was under consideration. Vedic Astrology establishes a link between the human being and conditioned time, and thereby makes him an expression of the universal time; the man, in astrological metaphysics, is an expression of universal periodicity.


Mala = Time) + (Chakra = Wheel)

Wheel of Destiny]. An important ritual recapitulating Cosmo genesis and the role of h man individual in it.


A dasa system, or the method of working out the planetary rulership at any specific age of the individual. It is based on Moon's position at birth in the specific quarter of the asterism, rather than in the asterism as a whole. Its calculation involves many intricate details of the stellar position and the system is intended to predict certain special aspects of life such as longevity of the individual. The following is a general description of the method.

The total number of asterism-quarters, viz. nakshatra padas, is (27 x 4) = 108. These are used to find

out the planetary sequence which will sway over different periods of the individual's life. In order to work out the specific sequence a special process is adopted. In order to do so, at the very outset, the total number of asterisms; (27) is divided into two groups, known as Savya (15) which refers to left hand, backward or reverse, and Apsavya (12) which means not-left. These two groups are further divided in groups of 10 and 5 asterisms, and 4 and 8 asterisms. These asterism-quarters can be written down as follows wherein the numerical represent the natural order of asterisms, e.g.

Ashwini = 1, Bharani = 2, Krittika = 3, and so on. Savya Group: (15)

Group(a): 10 asterisms, viz. ,1,3,7,9,13,15,19,21,25,27

Group (b): 5 asterisms, viz., 2, 8, 14, 20, 26

Apsavya Group: (12)

Group (c): 4 asterisms, viz., 4, 10, 16,

Group (d): 8 asterisms, viz., 5, 6, 11, 12,17,18,23,24

The sequence of zodiacal ruler ship under each of these asterisms according to their different quarters are worked out as below. (Numerical in the following groups stand for the order of zodiacal signs, e.g. 1=Aries, 2=Taurus, and so on). In following the details of the calculation, it is important to be very careful about the asterism and different signs such as ( ), &, ** etc., which indicate that the sequence has taken special turn.

Savya Group (a):

1st Qrs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

2nd Qrs: 10, 11, 12, ** 8, 7, 6, 0 4, 5, 3;

3rd Qrs: 2, 1, 12, 11, 10, 9, **,1, 2, 3,

4rth Qrs: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

Savya Group (b):

lst Qrs: ** 8, 7, 6, 4, 5, & 3, 2, 1, 12;

2nd Qrs: 11, 10, 9, ** 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

3rd Qrs: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, ** 8, 7, 6

4th Qrs: ** 4, 5, & 3, 2, 1, 12, 11, 10, 9

Apoasavya Group (c):

Ist Qrs: ** 9, 10, 11, 12, 1, 2, 3, 5, 4;

2nd Qrs: ( ) 6, 7, 8, ** 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7:

3rd Qrs: 6,5,4, 3,2, 1, ** 9, 10, 11;

4th Qrs: 12,1, 2, 3,5 & 4 6, 7,8

Apsavya Group (d):

1st Qrs: ** 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4M

2nd Qrs: 3, 2, 1, ** 9, 10, 11, 12, 1, 2;

3rd Qrs: 3,() 5,4, & 6,7,8, **12, 11, 10;

4th Qrs: 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1.

From the above, it can be observed that the sequence of planetary rulership is very irregular: skips several signs, or just goes one sign in retrogression or jumps over one sign. Such irregularities are of seven types of which three are important. These are named Mandook Gathi (frog-like motion), Markata Gathi (monkey-like motion), and Simhavalokan (Lion's aspect). When the movement is abruptly reversed much ahead of its position as from Pisces to Scorpio [as in Savya Group (a) 2nd Qrs], or vice versa, it is known as Simhavalokan. It is marked **. Mandoka Gathi indicates jumping over a sign in between them, as for example from Virgo to Cancer [as in Savya Group (a) 2nd Qrs]. It is marked by ( ). When the backward motion is for only one sign, it is known as Markata Gathi as from Leo to Cancer [as in Apsavaya Group (c) 4th Qrs]. It is marked by '&'. Markata and Mandooka Gathis are often together involving irregular movements among several zodiacal signs.

The planets owning the sign regulate the events during the rulership of these signs. There are only 9 signs under each group suggesting that only 9 planets form a cycle of planetary rulership under each asterism pada, but the total duration of each of these planets is different. In Savya Group (a) asterisms, the total number of years for Paramayu (full longevity) is 100 years for 1st Qrs signs, 85, years for 2nd Qr ones, 83 years for 3rd Qrs and 86 years for 4th Qr signs. In Apasauya Group asterisms, it is 86 years for 1st Qr signs, 83 years for 2nd Qr signs, 85 years for 3rd Qr signs and 100 years for 4th Qr signs. The total number of years of zodiacal rulerships for the four quarters of Savya asterisms will be found reversed from that of the Apasavya asterisms.

The periods of zodiacal ruler ships which appertain to the planets owning these signs are as follows:

Aries, Scorpio owned by Mars  7 years
Taurus, Libra owned by Venus 16 years
Gemini, Virgo owned by Mercury 9 years
Cancer owned by Moon  21 years
Leo owned by Sun 5 years
Sagittarius, Pisces owned by Jupiter 10 years
Capricorn, Aquarius owned by Saturn 4 years

 The zodiacal ruler ships in different nakshatra-padas are arranged in such a way that the total ruler ship period (Paramayu) synchronized with that indicated above.

The initial period of ruler ships is determined proportionately on the basis of lunar progress already made in the nakshatra-pada. The intervening sub periods (Bliuktis) are determined on the same principle as in other systems, e.g., Vinishottri (q.v.) but the cyclic order remains the same as given above for the nakshatra-padas. The lord of the first zodiac in any nakshatra-pada is known as Deha (body) and the last one as jeeva (life).

Kala Chakra Dasa is primarily used for determining the timing of death, and of physical afflications and difficulties of different sorts.

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